1. Physical patience by choice, such as doing hard labor willingly.
2. Physical patience without choice, such as patiently bearing illness, beatings and extremes of heat and cold.
3. Psychological patience by choice, such as refraining from things which both the Sharî‘ah and common sense say are wrong.
4. Psychological patience without choice, such as patiently bearing an enforced separation from one whom you love.
“…(it is righteousness…) to be firm and patient, in pain or suffering and adversity, and throughout all periods of panic. Such are the people of truth, the God-fearing.” (al-Baqarah 2:177)
And when he had finished burying Talhah and Zubayr he bade farewell to them with a heavy heart, a heart filled with tenderness and love. “I really hope,” he said in simple and sublime words, “that Talhah, az-Zubayr, Uthman and I will be among those of whom God has said: ‘And We shall remove from their hearts any lurking sense of injury and rancor; they will be brothers joyfully facing each other on thrones of dignity.’ ” (The Quran, Surah al-Hijr, 15:47) Then he looked tenderly and sorrowfully on the graves of his brothers in faith and said: “I have heard with these two ears of mine the Messenger of Allah saying: “Talhah and az-Zubayr are my companions in Paradise!
Muhammad bin Uqbah said that when death approached, Muawiyah said: “I wish I were an ordinary man from the Quraish living in Dhu Tuwa and that I had never been invested with authority as caliph”
Muhammad bin Seereen said, “When Muawiyah was on the brink of death, he began to mark out the floor. Then he turned his face and marked out another spot on the floor, after which he started to cry and say: “O Allah! Indeed, You said in Your Book “Verily, Allah forgives not that partners should be set up with Him (in worship), but He forgives everything else to whom He wills” [an-Nisa 4:48] Therefore, O Allah, make me amongst those You will forgive”. Al-Utbi narrated from his father that when Muawiya was dying, he quoted the following verses to those present (in at-Taweel poetry): “Death is inevitable because of what we are; consciousness of what lies after death is much more awful and lurid”.
After the Battle of Nahrawan, many Kharijites went to Makkah and sought sanctuary in the Kaaba. However they discovered that Muawiya’s troops had come and forced the people to give allegiance to Muawiya. They remained in the Kaaba and were in refuge there when Ali’s troops arrived and got the people to give their allegiance back to him. The Kharijites felt sore that in this way the sanctity of the process of oath taking was violated, and instead of establishing the kingdom of God on earth, the parties were trying to establish their own kingdoms. According to their view all those who were fighting for power had committed sin and had ceased to be Muslims. Fanatics as they were, they had the conviction that they would be serving the cause of God, if they murdered all such persons who were the principal characters in the struggle for power. They singled out three men for such murder: Ali, Muawiyah and ‘Amr b Al-A’as.
Muawiyah organized raiding parties under different commanders, and these parties were commanded to undertake raids in the territory of Iraq all along the border. A party under the command of No’man b Bashir was asked to ravage Ayn Tamr. A party under Sufyan b Auf was required to operate against Hit and Anbar. The third party under Abdullah b Masa’ada al Fazari was commanded to operate in the Taima section. Another party under Zohak b Qais raided Upper Mesopotamia. The purpose of these raids was to ravage and plunder and as a result – the Syrians gathered considerable booty. They would strike and then withdraw to their territory.
The game of Muawiyah was to incite the rebels of Basra to create trouble for Ali. There were many persons in Basra who were originally pro-Othman, but who had to take the oath of allegiance to Ali after the Battle of the Camel. The plan of Muawiyah was to motivate such people to throw off their allegiance to Ali.