Lessons learned from the Companions – Ali’s loss of Egypt and Muawiya’s Gain!

Muawiyah commissioned ‘Amr b Al-A’as to conquer Egypt. When ‘Amr departed at the head of on army on the expedition of Egypt Muawiyah said to him, “Amr you were the first conqueror of Egypt, go and reconquer Egypt. “The plan of the pro-Othman party was that while Muawiyah would attack Muhammad b Abu Bakr in Egypt itself, ‘Amr should lead the attack from across the borders.

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Lessons Learned from the Companions – The Arbitration and Betrayal Against Ali!

After the arbitration proceedings, Abu Musa did not have the courage to face Ali. He slipped away to Makkah and from there wrote a letter to Ali offering some sort of apology. Ali replied to this letter as follows: “Verily, many persons will be deprived of their rewards in the next world. They fall an easy prey to the temptations of the world, I am in a queer fix as regards the problem of the caliphate. A man stiff necked in his concede is at loggerheads with me. Surely, there is no one more anxious than me to keep the solidarity of the Muslims, because I strongly hope that God would reward me for these selfless services of mine in the cause of the unity of the Muslims. Abu Musa, you turned against the Right, and deserted me. Surely there is none more unfortunate than you, because you were deprived of your wisdom, and the faculty to act in the right way.”

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Lessons learned from the Companions – The Revolt and Betrayal against Ali!

Ali had to strive hard to restore some semblance of order. He sympathized with the families who had lost their men in the battle and assured them that such deaths would be avenged. In his sermons to the congregation in the principal mosque of the city, he exhorted the people to hold fast to the rope of God, cultivate the values of Islam, remain united among themselves, and pray to God for their ultimate victory. He took the people into confidence, and narrated at length how he had been betrayed at the Battle of Siffin. He calmed the feelings of the people, and sought their cooperation in another bid to avenge the truth.

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Lessons learned from the Companions – The Sign of the Death of Ammar

When the people came to know of the martyrdom of Ammaar and recalled the prophecy of the Holy Prophet it demoralized the troops of Muawiyah. Muawiyah tried to keep up the morale of his people by saying that the responsibility for his death lay with Ali who had brought him to fight in spite of his old ago. The death of ‘Ammaar was a great personal loss for Ali and he felt as if one of his hands had been cut off.

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Lessons learned from the Companions – The Fight for Syria!

Ali sent a letter to Muawiyah through a delegation. Ali pointed out to Muawiyah that according to the injunctions of Islam as well as according to the rules of warfare, access to water supply could not be denied to the combatants. Ali observed that any armed conflict between the two sides would lead to great loss of life on both the sides. He was therefore keen that the disputes between the two sides should be decided through peaceful negotiations. He added that he was not going to lead an attack unless all possibilities of peace had been exhausted.

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Lessons Learned from the Companions – Ali’s Quest for Peace with Muawiya!

All the people assembled in the mosque cried with one voice “We all are the murderers of Othman.” Turning to the envoy Ali said “You may tell Muawiyah what you have seen and heard”. Abu Muslim returned disappointed to Syria. Things had come to be tied in such knots that there appeared to be no possibility of resolving that dispute through peaceful means. On one side, the people of Syria clamored for war to avenge the murder of Othman, and on the other side, the people of Iraq held that they all were the murderers of Othman. In the circumstances, war appeared to be inevitable. Muawiyah maintained that just as the confederates under Ayesha invaded Basra to take action against such Basrites who were involved in the murder of Othman, thus he would have to invade Iraq to punish those who were guilty of the murder of Othman.

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Lessons learned from the Companions – Muawiya Governor of Syria

With the murder of Uthman who was Muawiyya’s cousin, Muawiyya wanted revenge. He had promised Uthman that if he were murdered he would revenge him and he wanted to keep that promise. Ali wanted to wait to get revenge and this is where the problem lay between the two. Muawiyaa knew he would have to fight ali and he knew that if he had to go to fight against Ali, the Byzantines could take advantage of such rift among the Muslims and invade Syria. He, therefore, made peace with the Byzantines on terms favorable to them, and even agreed to pay them an annual tribute.

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